Biblical History and Related Materials

The Bible contains the fundamental teachings of the Christian faith but many historical events that are important to our understanding of Christianity are not included in The Bible.

Studying the history and cultures of biblical events provides better perspectives on the development of Christianity.

The sites listed below, in no particular order, have been compiled by Theology Degrees On-line and offer a wealth of valuable information for bible students.

Biblical History Sites

Christian History Institute


The Christian History Institute is a vast resource for the study of the history of Christianity. Their aim is to make Christian history a delight to the widest possible audience, using modern media such as films produced by their sister company, Vision Video.

Dumbarton Oaks Research Library

The Dumbarton Oaks research library specializes in Byzantine history and offers a wide array of written and visual resources on the topic, including many that are relevant to Christian history.

Cambridge History of Christianity


The Cambridge History of Christianity has many different volumes with some of the most extensive information relating to Christianity. For academics, these books are integral reads.

National Geographic Society: The Lost Gospel of Judas


National Geographic Society: The Last Gospel of Judas is a great movie that documents the international effort to restore and translate a 66-page codex. It _ s profoundly interesting because of the relationship between Jesus and Judas.

Bible Gateway


Bible Gateway is a resource that provides researchers with various bibles, devotionals, passage lookups, keyword searches, and an app that can keep that research going when you _ re on the go. Additionally, this tool allows you to read and research scripture online all in the language or translation of your choice.

Medievalistsnet is _ where the Middle Ages begin, _ offering articles, videos, interviews, and many more features that describe the environment that fostered Christianity _ s growth during that time period. This is a well-rounded history site that provides background for just about any research during the Middle Ages.

Centre for the Study of Christian Origins


CSCO is under the umbrella of the School of Divinity, University of Edinburgh. This collection of scholars is committed to studying early Christianity, with specialists who focus on the New Testament, Patristics, and the Late Antique World.

Brice C. Jones


Brice C. Jones, a PhD candidate in religion, shares his papyrological resources for works that he _ s written, including his current dissertation. His research articles about ancient Greek and Coptic manuscripts have been published in major scholarly journals.

Christian History for Everyman


Paul Pavao, the author of this website, became a Christian in 1982. Since that time, he focused on the Book of Acts, growing churches, and finally planting one in East Tennessee. His battle with Leukemia also serves as part of his testimony in a site filled with ancient writings, doctrines, teachings, and Christian church history.

Earliest Christianity


Tim Henderson received his PhD in the Judaism and Christianity in Antiquity program at Marquette University, with a special focus on the first two centuries of Christianity. His blog reflects that interest, which has been deepened by his numerous publications and his adjunct professorship.



Eisenbrauns, a family-owned business, is a special prepress and typesetting service dedicated to preparing books that sell to the academic markets in biblical and ancient Near Eastern studies. They also are in the business of disseminating ideas that can help shape the world through their book sales.

Public Domain Maps


This site contains two public domain maps of the Mediterranean World in Late Antiquity, and some resources that can help anyone who is interested in ancient cartography. The maps are excellent resources for presentations on the ancient Mediterranean world.

Glossary for the Study of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam


Robert A. Kraft from the University of Pennsylvania initially prepared this useful glossary and updates it to reflect any new material. This site is an excellent resource for scholarly Christian studies.

Index of Christian Art


This important archive of medieval art was founded by Charles Rufus Morey in 1917, and continues today as an online resource for researchers and lovers of Christian art. The goal for the archive is to be ichnographically analyzed _ a task may never be completed with the constant addition of continual research.

Electronic New Testament Educational Resources


Electronic New Testament Educational Resources has all the resources you could ask for when it comes to the New Testament. From Audio walkthroughs to glossaries and help with different translations.

The Gnostic Society Library


The Gnostic Society Library is a collection of documents primarily relating to the Gnostic tradition and even includes audio lectures and archive notes to supplement the wide array of content they have.

Electronic Tools and Ancient Near East Archives (ETANA)


Electronic Tools and Ancient Near East Archives is a collaboration between a number of educational institutions with a goal of digitizing a vast amount of documents from many different universities and research facilities.

Interpreting Ancient Manuscripts


Interpreting Ancient Manuscripts is a tool designed by Timothy W. Seid from the Earlham School of Religion. The content on the site is designed to help others get various manuscripts translated to have all the information at their disposal relating to research.

Religion Facts: History of Christianity


Religion Facts offers the History of Christianity through articles that provide an overview of some of the most important events and periods in Christian history. This site also offers facts about world religions, including comparisons, symbols, glossaries, and charts.

Monergism _ s Directory of Theology: History of Christianity


Monergism _ s Directory of Theology: History of Christianity is a resource with ample documents relating to various parts of Christian scripture. With nearly 20 topics to choose from, it _ s a great place to get started when exploring Christian history.

Ancient Jewish Accounts of Jesus


This site offers ancient Jewish accounts of Jesus in documents that are not included in the bible. The writings of Josephus, an anti-Christian polemic, and an account of a heresy trial, among other writings, are included for reference and study.

History of the Early Church


This all-encompassing site focuses on early church history and the dynamic faith of the early Christians. The site is dedicated to a simple Gospel message that early Christians received from the Apostles, including books, teachings, doctrines, and translation projects.

Early Church History _ CH101


This site covers the basics of early church history, including insights into the Greek and Roman world during the first three centuries of Christianity. As an added bonus, this site offers information on how the New Testament Canon was formed.

Early Christianity and the Church


This article on early Christianity and the Church is offered as part of a course on the history of Western civilization at Utah State University. The history, which includes Christian controversies, concludes with hints at how the Muslims took Near East theological traditions to create a novel response to classical Christian paradoxes.

Early Accounts of the Temple of Jerusalem


Early Accounts of the Temple of Jerusalem is for any practicing scholar and Christian who wishes to learn more about the creation of the Temple of Jerusalem, as well as other significant historical facts pertaining to the time.

The History of Christianity in 25 Objects: Introduction


The History of Christianity in 25 Objects is a great series that breaks down the religion of Christianity and many smaller sections that makes it much easier to retain new information relating to some of the most important pieces of its history. This Introduction section is a great primer for this very interesting series of posts.

Patheos Library: Christianity

PatheosLibraryChristianity is a site that promotes a forum for discussing Faith and their Christianity section explains origins, history, beliefs, rituals and worship routines, ethics, and more.

Fordham University _ s Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Christian Origins


Fordham University _ s Ancient History Sourcebook breaks down an extensive amount of information relating to Christian history and the Jesuit perspective on issues.

Orthodox Research Institute: Church History

Founded in 2001, Orthodox Research Institute serves the needs of the English-speaking Orthodox Christian population, as well as those who just want to learn more about the Orthodox faith. The site _ s in-depth section on Church History has enough detail to satisfy even the most ardent Christian historian.

The New Testament Gateway


The New Testament Gateway is an internet directory of resources relating to the New Testament. It has been awarded numerous accolades since its inception and is fantastic for research.

History of Christianity


History of Christianity is an overview of some of the most integral milestones in within the religion and supplements it with articles on that examine different aspects within the religion.

Evangelical Textual Criticism


Evangelical Textual Criticism is a forum for individuals to get information relating to the Bible and the original manuscripts. They convey very factual information through the perspective of historic evangelical theology.

Bible Notes


Bible Notes is a site that summarizes different parts of the Bible and has compiled great sources of information for those who work in research and need to quickly work through the content.

The Christian Catacombs of Rome


The Christian Catacombs of Rome is a historical site that is well-known for having many different relics relating to Christian history. The site details what to expect when visiting the site, along with interesting supplementary information.

Early Christianity and World Cultures: Texts and Resources


Early Christianity and World Cultures: Texts and Resources underlines the most integral historical reference pieces as relevant to the beginning of Christianity. The content is very insightful and managed by Christopher Haas of the Classical Studies Program at Villanova University.

Early Church History Book List: Fresno Pacific


Fresno Pacific University provides users with a thorough book list of Early Church History, making it easier for those interested in Christianity and history to find useful reference tools.

The Tertullian Project


The Tertullian Project is a site that chronicles some of the most relevant information from the man Tertullian who lived in the ancient city of Carthage in 200AD.

Jewish Roots of Eastern Christian Mysticism


Jewish Roots of Eastern Christian Mysticism is a seminar that explains ongoing research from graduate students in the department of theology at Marquette University.

Conflicts & Crusades

Though peace is a core tenet of the Christian faith, there have been conflicts throughout history, some violent and some merely political, that have influenced the current practices and values of Christianity.

Crisis Magazine _ s Crash Course on the Crusades


This article about the Crusades argues that pop culture has tainted the Crusades and Crusaders, reinforcing the message that the Crusades were _ bad and obviously so. _ The idea that the Crusades were far more complicated and interesting is tackled here.

The Great Schism Between East and West in 1054


The Great Schism between East and West in 1054 is a paper written by Elke Speliopoulos for a course requirement at Liberty Baptist Theological Seminary, Liberty University. The 14-page paper goes into great detail about the causes and results of this schism, along with detailed notes and citations.

Ancient Jewish History: The Great Revolt


The Jewish Virtual Library provides a perspective on The Great Revolt of 66-70 CE, when suppressed Jews revolted against Rome. The argument of this article is that this attack might well have been a terrible mistake, with an estimated one million Jews dying in the ordeal and the total loss of Jewish political authority in Israel until 1948.

Focus on Jerusalem _ The Fall of Jerusalem in 70 A.D.


This interesting article focuses on the fall of Jerusalem in 70AD, but also incorporates biblical references. The last part of the article focuses on the rise of Jerusalem based upon various books and scriptures to point to the religious focus Jerusalem _ s environment when the Messiah returns.

Warfare during the Crusades


The De Re Militari, initiated in 1992, is the Society for the Study of Medieval Military History. The page linked here specifically addresses warfare during the Crusades. The scholarly articles listed here offer citations for further reading and research.

The Sack of Constantinople, 1204


The 1204 sack of Constantinople committed by Italian, German, French, English, Irish and Scottish Crusaders has long been burned into Greek memory. Learn more about this Crusade event, offered in a site that also includes information about Greek Orthodoxy.

Constantinople _ the Sack of 1204


The History of Islam site focuses here on the sack of Constantinople in 1204 AM. Written by Professor Dr. Nazeer Ahmed, this article offers an insight into how this event gave birth to the Renaissance.

The Gordon Collection and the French Wars of Religion


This University of Virginia Library collection is filled with beautifully bound and preserved pamphlets, polemical writings, royal and parliamentary edicts from the French Wars of Religion (1562-98). The works include Penitential Psalms, the Ronsard polemic, and a number of pamphlets describing and reacting to the violence of the French wars of religion from both the Catholic and the Calvinist points of view.

The National Huguenot Society


The National Huguenot Society honors the history and ancestry of the French Protestant exiles who were cast from France throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. They were Calvinists who suffered under persecution. The Promulgation of the Edict of Toleration in November, 1787, partially restored the Huguenots _ civil and religious rights in France.

The German Huguenot Museum


The German Huguenot Museum in Bad Karlshafen was founded in 1980 in a former tobacco factory. Exhibits relating to Huguenot history are displayed on three floors, including the settlement and integration of Huguenots (French Protestants) who fled France and religious persecution to the safety of German territories.

Wars of Religion


This _ Wars of Religion _ site provides information about religious wars specifically in France from 1562-1579. Topics covered include the Saint Bartholomew _ s Day Massacre in 1572, when 50,000 French Protestants were slaughtered for their religious beliefs through an eradication program allowed by Charles IX.

The Massacre of St. Bartholomew _ s Day


The Massacre of St. Bartholomew _ s is a very notable moment in Christian history and this page from Hanover College details a very specific part.

Unam Sanctam Catholicam


Unam Sanctam Catholicism is a regularly updated blog that supports the purity and sanctity of Catholicism through discussion of current and historical events. First Jewish-Roman War


The first Jewish-Roman War in 64 AD is chronicled in this account from History Net. This is the war that pushed a priest named Joseph ben Mattathias (Flavius Josephus) to the forefront of history as the principal historian of the Jewish War. The Destruction Of Jerusalem


This article by David Padfield addresses the 24th Chapter of Matthew, examining the context of the chapter and its application to Jerusalem _ s destruction in 70 AD. This is part one of a two-part article filled with references and suggested reading for further studies.

Boise State University: The Crusades


Boise State University offers a fully virtual course on The Crusades. The complete course materials are open to the general public, and the course provides a syllabus, a discussion forum, a study guide, study units, and supplemental resources.

Cornell HISTORY 2590: The Crusades


The Crusades were an incredibly interesting time in Christian history and this guide from two professors at Cornell underline this. The page has some of the most valuable resources to help educate one on this particular time.

Timeline for the Crusades and Christian Holy War to c.1350


Timeline for the Crusades and Christian Holy War to c.1350 is particularly useful for anyone looking for information from c.950 to c.1350 relating to The Crusades.

Catholic Education Resource Center: The Crusades


The Catholic Education Center is an insightful tool that allows people to get information relating to the Crusades, primarily aimed at junior or seniors in high school. While incredibly factual, it also presents everything in an apologetic light that does not aim to justify the brutal implications of the Crusades.

Agape Bible Study: The Great Eastern Schism


The unity of the church through the 11th century was legend. By the middle of the eleventh century, however, the Greek or Eastern Schism broke the unity of the Church, cutting off a large portion of churches founded by the Apostles and their successors. Learn more about that church history at this site.

Great Schism _ Causes and Effects


The _ Great Schism _ refers either to the split between the Byzantine Church and the Roman Church that occurred in 1054, or to the Great Western Schism that occurred between 1378 and 1417. Learn about both schism in the Christian church at this site, including causes and effects.

The Finer Times: The Great Schism


This article addresses the Great Schism in Western Christendom that divided the church beginning in 1378 and ending in 1417. The causes and results are detailed here, and a list of related articles, such as the Middle Ages Battles, is included at the bottom of the page. The Crusades


The History Channel has long stood as an incredible source of information on just about any historical subject and their guide on the Crusades is no exceptions. With over 15 videos and a photo gallery, they _ ve quickly established themselves as one of the foremost sources on this period.

Catholic Answers: The Inquisition


Catholic Answers: The Inquisition explains with great detail the Medieval Inquisition and some of the less-known facts that are very relevant to properly painting a picture of the events involved.

History of England: The Inquisition


The History of England is an incredible source, highlighting some of the most relevant details that have contributed to England in its form today. Their page on The Inquisition is particularly useful for understanding the implications of those events.

Heritage History: Jewish-Roman Wars


Heritage History is a great tool for getting information about different wars and social developments for different cultures historically. The section on Jewish-Roman Wars is particularly insightful to the struggles faced in the early A.D. days.

Medievality: The Crusades


Medievality is an impressive source for information relating to all medieval life and has multiple links pertaining to each section of the Crusades. Because their content isn _ t exclusively relevant to the Crusades, they _ re able to provide great supplementary information relating to the period.

The Great Schism


The Great Schism is one of the most significant events during the Medieval era and there are many different facts that are incredibly important. The site goes into significant detail on these events and how they _ ve contributed to the world today.

Protestant Reformation & Calvinism

The Protestant Reformation is one of the major splits in Christian history, in which groups that disliked the dogmatic and ritualistic practices of the Catholic Church split off to form their own sects of the faith. While still Christian, they espoused different ways of practicing and celebrating their faith.

The Calvinist International


The Calvinist International is a website that aims to foster conversations which can attain a mean between academic precision and popular exposition. The authors of this site have embraced the name of _ Reformed Irenicism, _ which reflects the name of a school of individuals who, against fanaticism and indifferentism, worked for the reformation, unity, and peace of Christendom.

Center for Reformed Theology and Apologetics


The Center for Reformed Theology and Apologetics (CRTA) focuses on providing biblically sound resources for its readers. Calvinism is the foundation, with a strict subscriptionist view of the Westminster Standards.

The Story of Calvinism in the New World: A Synopsis


Leonard Pine, Adjunct Professor of Practical Theology at Western Reformed Seminary, offers a synopsis about the story of Calvinism in the New World. This synopsis leads to the _ spirit of Calvinism in the world today, _ which Pine states empowers the church at large.

Genuine Historical Calvinism


This site offers the _ doctrines of true Calvinism _ by focusing on historical Calvinist figures and their beliefs and actions. This site is managed by Chris Duncan, a member of the Sovereign Redeemer Assembly.

A History of Hypo-Calvinism


Marc D. Carpenter offers his perspectives on the history of Hypo-Calvinism, or Christians who think that God suffers from conflicted feelings. Carpenter argues that this type of thinking is illogical and an _ unstable form of Calvinism that revels in logical inconsistency. _

The Reformation and Counter-Reformation


The Protestant Reformation, and the Catholic response _ or, the Counter-Reformation _ is detailed in this article by James Jackson. This event prompted Luther to nail his theses on the doors of the Wittenberg castle church for discussion and debate.

The Reformation


Bruce Satterfield of Brigham Young University _ s Department of Religious Education offers a condensed version of the Reformation, along with the outcomes that greatly influenced the world. Of these, it led to the developed of Christian sects such as Protestantism & a development that led to a portion of America _ s colonization.



Calvinism explains the origins of Calvinism and its relevance to Orthodox Christianity, along with an impressive amount of knowledge relating to the place Calvinism holds within the religion.

Flow of History: The Reformation


The Flow of History presents an innovative approach to teaching history and this particular page looks at The Reformation and Calvinism _ s role. It _ s dense with information, so make sure to read up on it.



TULIP is an acronym that summarizes the five points of Calvinism. The site details each aspect, along with a large seminar from The Bethlehem Institute.

Sites for Related Materials

Christian history is a deep and broad topic, and even the history of a single book of the bible could fill volumes. These sites offer a glimpse of several important points of discussion for theology students to know about.

Orthodox Church in America: Monasticism


The Orthodox Church in America offers their historical perspective on Christian monasticism, providing an explanation of the three formal types of monastic organization as well as praise for the genuine call to a monastic life.

Hecht Museum, University of Haifa


The Hecht Museum, inaugurated in 1984, holds the permanent archaeological exhibition of the founder _ s work. Dr. Reuben Hecht, found of the Dagon Silos in the port of Haifa, provided artifacts that highlight the Israelite period in a thematic and chronological manner. Two of the most important exhibits are the Jewish coin collection and the inscribed seals from the Biblical period.

The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago


The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago is an amazing collecting of studies about the ancient Near East, James Henry Breasted founded this research organization and museum in 1919, and it is recognized internationally today as a pioneer in the archaeology, philology, and history of early Near Eastern civilizations.

Near East Archaeological Society


The NEAS, founded in 1957, focuses on research in the lands of the Bible, the modern Middle East, from an evangelical perspective. The Bible is considered by this group as an ancient document that provides useful data that is complimentary to the archaeological data.

Overview of Medieval Monasticism


This history comes from the Director of the University Honors Program at Dallas Baptist Theological Seminary. Dr. Philip Mitchell shares his knowledge about early Christian Monasticism through to reform movements and includes a helpful timeline.

Historyworld: History of Monasticism


This history of monasticism covers Christian hermits from the third and fourth century AD to Benedictine nuns in the seventh century AD. This is a secular article that offers a historic perspective on lifestyles and on belief systems.

Network for the Study of Late Antique and Early Medieval Monasticism


This site incorporates a research network for scholars who work primarily on the history of monasticism in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. The works gathered here mainly consist of doctoral projects or research conducted at the beginning of a PhD career.

State Church Of The Roman Empire


Ben H. Swett offers a summary chronology of the state church of the Roman Empire, based upon a list of various sources listed at the end of the article. Swett argues that Theodosius _ s Edict of 380 AD was the watershed between what Christianity was, and what it became after that edict.

The Church of Antioch


The Church of Antioch is a page from the New Advent that details one of the most notable cities in Christian history and some very interesting information pertaining to its place in history.

The Seven Churches of Asia Minor (Part I)


This article contemplates the _ church _ as mentioned in the Book of Revelation, specifically the letters to the seven churches in early Christian history. Links are included with notes and audio to help readers understand the information on this page.

An Overview of the Seven Churches of Asia


An Overview of the Seven Churches of Asia is an immense resource from Baptist Bible Believers and is a thorough walkthrough of all the information pertaining to Christianity in Asia.

Biblical Archaeology Society: Bible History Daily


The Biblical Archaeology Society: Bible History Daily is a source for getting up-to-date information delivered daily in the form of various eBooks and articles on Biblical archaeology topics.

Scrolls from the Dead Sea


Scrolls from the Dead Sea is an exhibit at the Library of Congress that presents the controversial scrolls that are supposedly over 2000 years old. The exhibition is divided into 5 parts, each presenting a large amount of perspective regarding these scrolls.

Near East Archaeology


Near East Archaeology is a source for those involved in archaeology, history, biblical studies, and more. It has many different tools for those in relevant fields to attain the highest quality information relating to research.

Papyriinfo is a fascinating resource for studying papyrological documents and various papyrological resources. Additionally, there _ s a customizable search engine for quickly going through various collections.

Monasticism in Western Medieval Europe


Monasticism in Western Medieval Europe details those in Western Europe during the medieval times who renounced worldly pursuits in order to commit a stronger focus to religious endeavors.

Eyewitness to History: Life in a Christian Monastery, ca. 585


Eyewitness to History: Life in a Christian Monastery, ca. 585 chronicles Pope Gregory I and his tenure at the top of the Catholic Church during medieval times.

A History of Christian Monasticism


A history of Christian Monasticism spends a large amount of time showcasing monasticism and its history throughout time. Since this website has so many publications, it _ s worthwhile to look through other sections to see what _ s offered.

Papyrology Collection _ University of Michigan

The University of Michigan _ s Papyrology Collection is one of the most well-known sets of ancient manuscripts in the world. The page is great preparation material for exploring the exhibit and should not be missed.

The Maxwell Institute: The Church and the Roman Empire


The Maxwell Institute: The Church and the Roman Empire is a historical page that details the difficulties that existed between Christians and the Jews of the Roman Empire.

Timeline of Patriarchal History


The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople has a Timeline of Patriarchal History. Its depth is surprising, starting from the beginning of Christian Faith and extending to present day.

Seven Churches of Revelation


Seven Churches of Revelation are located in present-day Turkey. The site explains how to visit these ruins and the historical significance of them.